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Amiens Agreement

Talks between Foreign Minister Lord Hawkesbury and French diplomat Otto were held in silence in London in the summer of 1801 and an interim agreement was signed in early October. The French have done better to have the agreement. They agreed to re-establish both Sicily and the papal states of their earlier regimes, but they retained control of the Netherlands, the west bank of the Rhine, Piedmont and Savoy, while Britain agreed to leave Egypt and release the Cape of Good Hope, Malta, and various Caribbean islands while retaining Trinidad and Ceylon. In the end, of course, the answer was both. Napoleon was able to restore France and many felt that his civilian achievements were more important than his military. But he also could not deny his nature. The adventurer was still present. At the same time that he wanted to settle in France, he was also looking for other possibilities. At this stage of his career, Napoleon was very strongly oriented towards the Mediterranean and the sea in general. He was born in the Mediterranean and his triumphs came to Italy and Egypt, even though he had not even campaigned in Germany.

Egypt, Turkey, India and the distant colonies were still vividly remembered. In October 1800, France had also acquired Louisiana through the second Treaty of San Ildefonso (with which Spain had defeated Portugal with its alliance with Great Britain – see below). This was confirmed for the confirmation of the secret agreement of the first treaty, signed by the Executive Board in 1796, and reaffirmed on 21 March 1801 in the secret treaty of Madrid. Unfortunately, all the progress made in exploiting this potential has been thwarted by Britain`s orders on the sea. Even the successful pacification of Italy was difficult when the Royal Navy sailed both shores of the boot, closing the Strait of Messina, separating Sicily and closing the Mediterranean. If that were not enough, it was clear that Britain was the spokesperson company of the 2nd Coalition, and while remaining a lone enemy, Britain would not rest until it brought together new partners in the fight against France. Therefore, the possibilities Napoleon saw to advance France and his own government depended on the end of the ruinous conflict with Great Britain. If Addington had been prime minister after the battle on the Nile had cut off the French army in Egypt, General Bonaparte would have welcomed the peace. Unfortunately, Pitt`s wheels, which would eventually end their presence in Egypt, were too advanced for the French before Addington`s timid approach. A few days after the agreement of 8 October, Napoleon also reached an agreement with the new Tsar Alexander. France recognized all that had been given to Paul, but this time without mutual support. Among the things that this agreement provided, naples was evacuated and the door was opened to Russian mediation with the sultan on the issue of Egypt.

Shortly around the light, Napoleon seemed to admit all that the tsar demanded, but in reality he offered the tsar only an empty hand he had already given to Hawkesbury. But an important reflection; His agreement with Russia was secret to prevent Britain from discovering that it was bound by other commitments to its concessions and thus weakening its position.

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